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Journal Publications

93) "Electrochemical Coupling of Biomass-Derived Acids: New C8 Platforms for Renewable Polymers and Fuels." L. Wu, M. Mascal, T. J. Farmer, S. P. Arnaud, M.-A. Wong Chang, ChemSusChem 2017, 10, 166.

92) "Quantitative dedoping of conductive polymers." I. Jacobs, F. Wang, N. Hafezi, C. Medina-Plaza, T. Harrelson, J. Li, M. Augustine, M. Mascal, A. Moule, Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 832.

91) "Crystal structure determination as part of an undergraduate laboratory experiment: 1',3',3'-trimethylspiro[chromene-2,2'-indoline] and 1',3',3'-trimethyl-4-[(E)-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)methyl]spiro[chroman-2,2'-indoline]." J. O. S. Beckett, M. M. Olmstead, J. C. Fettinger, D. A. Gray, S. Manabe, M. Mascal, Acta Cryst. 2016, E72, 1659.

90) "Comparison of solution-mixed and sequentially processed P3HT:F4TCNQ films: effect of doping-induced aggregation on film morphology." I. E. Jacobs, E. W. Aasen, J. L. Oliveira, T. N. Fonseca, J. D. Roehling, J. Li, G. Zhang, M. P. Augustine, M. Mascal, A. J. Moule, J. Mater. Chem. C 2016, 4, 3454.

89) "Experimental Studies Towards Optimization of the Production of 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) from Glucose in a Two-Phase Reactor." D. R. Lane, M. Mascal, P. Stroeve, Renewable Energy 2016, 85, 994.

88) "Processed Lignin as a Byproduct of the Generation of 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural From Biomass: A Promising New Mesoporous Material." V. L. Budarin, J. H. Clark, J. Henschen, T. J. Farmer, D. J. Macquarrie, M. Mascal, G. K. Nagaraja, T. H. M. Petchey, ChemSusChem 2015, 8, 4172.

87) "Synthesis of Anti-inflammatory Furan Fatty Acids From Biomass-derived 5-(Chloromethyl) furfural." F. Chang, W.-H. Hsu, M. Mascal, Sustainable Chem. Pharm. 2015, 1, 14.

86) "5-(Chloromethyl)furfural is the New HMF: Functionally Equivalent But More Practical in Terms of its Production From Biomass." M. Mascal, ChemSusChem 2015, 8, 3391.

85) "Introducing Solubility Control for Improved Organic p-type Dopants." J. Li, G. Zhang, D. Holm, I. E. Jacobs, B. Yin, P. Stroeve, M. Mascal, A. J. Moule, Chem. Mat., 2015, 27, 5765.

 

84) "Production of 5-(Chloromethyl)furan-2-carbonyl Chloride and Furan-2,5-dicarbonyl Chloride from Biomass-derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural (CMF)." S. Dutta, L. Wu, M. Mascal, Green Chem. 2015, 17, 3737.

 

83) "Efficient, Metal-free Production of Succinic Acid by Oxidation of Biomass-derived Levulinic Acid with Hydrogen Peroxide." S. Dutta, L. Wu, M. Mascal, Green Chem. 2015, 17, 2335.

 

82) "Efficient, Chemical-Catalytic Approach to the Production of 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Oxidation of Biomass-Derived Levulinic Acid With Hydrogen Peroxide." L. Wu; S. Dutta; M. Mascal ChemSusChem 2015, 8, 1157.

 

81) "Platform Molecules." T. J. Farmer, M. Mascal, In Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, 2nd Edition, 2015, J. H. Clark, F. Deswarte, Eds., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 89-143.

 

80) "Novel Pathways to 2,5-Dimethylfuran via Biomass-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural." S. Dutta, M. Mascal, ChemSusChem 2014, 7, 3028.

 

79) "Chemical-Catalytic Approaches to the Production of Furfurals and Levulinates from Biomass." M. Mascal, S. Dutta, Top. Curr. Chem. 2014, 353, 41.

 

78) "Top Chemical Opportunities from Carbohydrate Biomass: A Chemist’s View of the Biorefinery." M. Dusselier, M. Mascal, B. F. Sels, Top. Curr. Chem. 2014, 353, 1.

 

77) "Synthesis of the Insecticide Prothrin and Its Analogues from Biomass Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural" F. Chang, S. Dutta, J. J. Becnel, A. S. Estep, M. Mascal, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 476.

 

76) "The Angelica Lactone Dimer as a Renewable Feedstock for Hydrodeoxygenation: Simple, High-Yield Synthesis of Branched C7 ‒ C10 Gasoline Hydrocarbons" M. Mascal, S. Dutta, I. Gandarias, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 1854.

 

75) Comment on Gao et al. "Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) from Carbohydrates in Mild Biphasic Systems", Molecules 2013, 18, 7675, M. Mascal, Molecules 2014, 19, 1367.

 

74) "Synthesis of N-Substituted Pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines for the Large Scale Production of Self-Assembled Rosettes and Nanotubes" A. Durmus, G. Gunbas, S. C. Farmer, M. M. Olmstead, M. Mascal, B. Legesse, J. Cho, R. L. Beingessner, T. Yamazaki, and H. Fenniri, J. Org. Chem. 2013,78, 11421.

 

73) "Extraordinary Modes of Bonding Enabled by the Triquinane Framework" G. Gunbas, Mark Mascal, J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 9579.

 

72) "Extreme Oxatriquinanes: Structural Characterization of α-Oxyoxonium Species with Extraordinarily Long Carbon–Oxygen Bonds" G. Gunbas, W. L. Sheppard, J. C. Fettinger, M. M. Olmstead, and Mark Mascal, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 8173.

 

71) "Extreme Oxatriquinanes and a Record C-O Bond Length" G. Gunbas, N. Hafezi, W. Sheppard, M. Olmstead, I. Stoyanova, F. Tham, M. Meyer, M. Mascal, Nature Chem. 2012, 4, 1018.

 

70) "Chemicals From Biobutanol: Technologies and Markets." M. Mascal, Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref.2012, 6, 483.

 

69) "The R3O+…H+ Hydrogen Bond: Toward a Tetracoordinate Oxadionium(2+) Ion." E. S. Stoyanov, G. Gunbas, N. Hafezi, M. Mascal, I. V. Stoyanova, F. S. Tham, and C. A. Reed, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 3101.

 

68) "Putting Anion–π Interactions Into Perspective." A. Frontera, P. Gamez, M. Mascal, T. J. Mooibroek, and J. Reedijk, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 9564.

 

67) "Synthesis of Ranitidine (Zantac) from Cellulose-Derived 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural." M. Mascal and S. Dutta, Green. Chem. 2011, 13, 3101.

 

66) "Concise Photochemical Synthesis of the Antimalarial Indole Alkaloid Decursivine."M. Mascal, K. Modes, A. Durmus, Angewandte Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 4445.

 

65) "Advanced Distillation Curve Analysis on Ethyl Levulinate as a Diesel Fuel Oxygenate and a Hybrid Biodiesel Fuel." B. C. Windom, T. M. Lovestead, M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, T. J. Bruno, Energy & Fuels, 2011, 25, 1878.

 

64) "Synthesis of the natural herbicide δ-aminolevulinic acid from cellulose-derived 5-(chloromethyl) furfural." M. Mascal, S. Dutta, Green Chemistry 2011, 13, 40.

 

63) "Azatriquinane as a Platform for Tripodal Metal Complexes and Calixiform Scaffolds." M. Jevric, T. Zheng, N. K. Meher, J. C. Fettinger, M. Mascal, Angewandte Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 717.

 

62) "Comment on Processes for the Direct Conversion of Cellulose or Cellulosic Biomass into Levulinate Esters." M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, ChemSusChem 2010, 3, 1349.

 

61) "1,4,7-Trimethyloxatriquinane: SN2 Reaction at Tertiary Carbon." M. Mascal, N. Hafezi, M. D. Toney, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 10662.

 

60) "Co-processing of Carbohydrates and Lipids in Oil Crops to Produce a Hybrid Biodiesel." M. Mascal and E. B. Nikitin, Energy & Fuels 2010, 24, 2170.

59) "High-Yield Conversion of Plant Biomass Into the Key Value-Added Feedstocks 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural, Levulinic acid, and Levulinic Esters via 5-(Chloromethyl)furfural." M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, Green Chemistry 2010, 12, 30.

58) "Dramatic Advancements in the Saccharide to 5-Chloromethylfurfural Conversion Reaction."  M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, ChemSusChem 2009, 2, 859.

57) "Towards the Efficient, Total Glycan Utilization of Biomass."  M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, ChemSusChem 2009, 2, 423.

56) "Crystal Packing in Planar Platinum(II) and Palladium(II) Complexes.  Hydrogen Bond Mediated Supramolecular Assembly of Ten Wedge-Shaped Molecules into a Cyclic Array." E. M. Gussenhoven, M. Jevric, M. M. Olmstead, J. C. Fettinger, M. Mascal, A. L. Balch, Crystal Growth and Design 2009, 9, 1786.

55) "Oxatriquinane and Oxatriquinacene: Extraordinary Oxonium Ions." M. Mascal, N. Hafezi, N. K. Meher, J. C. Fettinger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 13532.

 

54) "Direct, High-Yield Conversion of Cellulose into Biofuel."  M. Mascal, E. B. Nikitin, Angewandte Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 7924.

 

53) "Aromatic Nitration in Liquid Ag0.51K0.42Na0.07NO3." M. Mascal, L. Yin, R. Edwards, M. Jarosh, J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 6148.

 

52) "Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper."  M. Mascal, R. Scown, J. Chem. Educ. 2008, 85, 546.

 

51) "Fluoride-Selective Host Based on Anion-π Interactions, Ion Pairing and Hydrogen Bonding: Synthesis and Fluoride Ion Sandwich Complex."  M. Mascal, I. Yakovlev, E. B. Nikitin, J. C.Fettinger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 8782.

 

50) "Aromaticity and Curvature in Heteroacepentalenes." M. Mascal, J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 4323.

 

49) "Ordered Crystals of Fullerenes Produced by Co-crystallization with Halogenated Azatriquinacenes."  D. Pham, J. Cerón Bertran, M. M. Olmstead, M. Mascal, A. L. Balch, Crystal Growth and Design 2007, 7, 75.

 

48) "Synthesis of the G–C DNA Base Hybrid with a Functional Tail." M. Mascal, S. C. Farmer, J. R. Arnall-Culliford, J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 8146.

 

47) "Surface Alignment of the N-Octadecylazatriquinacenium Cation as Determined by Sum Frequency Generation on the Surface of H2O and D2O."  S. Baldelli, M. Mascal, J. Cerón Bertran, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2006, 427, 72.

 

46) “Precedent and Theory Unite in the Hypothesis of a Highly Selective Fluoride Ion Receptor.” M. Mascal, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 2890.

 

45) "Water Oligomers in Crystal Hydrates – What's News and What Isn't?" M. Mascal, L. Infantes, J. Chisholm, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 32.

 

44) "Interaction of Fullerenes with the Concave Surfaces of Perchloroazatriquinacene." D. Pham, J. Cerón Bertran, M. M. Olmstead, M. Mascal, A. L. Balch, Org. Lett. 2005, 7, 2805.

 

43) "The Azaacepentalenide Anion: A New Aromatic, Bowl-Shaped Heterocycle." M. Mascal, J. Cerón Bertran, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1352.

 

42) "Automatic Chiral Selection in a Thermodynamically Predisposed Metathesis Reaction." M. Mascal, I. G. Wood, T. Walsgrove, Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 2517.

 

41)  "The Energetics of Shooting Ions into the Dodecahedrane Cage." M. Mascal, J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 8644.

 

40) "Anion-Aromatic Bonding: A Case for Anion Recognition by p-Acidic Rings" M. Mascal, A. Armstrong, M. D. Bartberger, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 6274.

 

39) "Azatriquinanes.  Part 4.  The Chemistry of Azatriquinenamine and its Bromination Products." M. Lera, A. J. Blake, C. Wilson, M. Mascal, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 2001, 3145.

 

38) "The Azatriquinenamine Trimer - a Novel Proton Chelate." M. Mascal, M. Lera, A. J. Blake, M. Czaja, A. Kozak, M. Makowski, L. Chmurzynski, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 3696.

 

37) "Structure and Polymorphism of the 10.10.10 Simmons and Park Cryptand." A. S. Batsanov, A. J. Blake, N. M. Hext, M. Mascal, Chem. Commun., 2001, 127.

 

36) "Azatriquinanes.  Part 2.  Synthesis of Azatriquinadiene and Azatriquinacene." M. Mascal, M. Lera, A. J. Blake, J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 7253.

 

35) "Breakdown of the Hydrogen Bond Strength-Length Analogy - a Revision." M. Mascal, C. E. Marjo, A. J. Blake, Chem. Commun. 2000, 1591.

 

34) "Hydrogen Bonded Molecular Ribbons as Templates for the Synthesis of Modified Mineral Phases." S. Champ, J. A. Dickenson, P. S. Fallon, B. R. Heywood, M. Mascal, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2000, 39,    2716.

 

33)  "On the Nature of Arene η6 Interactions in the Solid State and the Use of Cylindrophanes as Ligands for Sandwich Complexation of Metals with Longer-Range Interactions with the Benzene Ring." M. Mascal, J.-L. Kerdelhué, A. J. Blake, P. A. Cooke, R. J. Mortimer, S. J. Teat, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2000, 485.

 

32)  "Protonic Conduction in Imidazole - a Solid-State 15N-NMR Study." B. S. Hickman, M. Mascal, J. J. Titman, I. G. Wood, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 11486.

 

31) "Calixhydroquinones: a Novel Access to Conformationally Restricted, Meta-Substituted Calixarenes." M. Mascal, R. Warmuth, R. T. Naven, R. A. Edwards, M. B. Hursthouse, D. E. Hibbs, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1999, 3435. 

 

30) "The Vinylogous Witkop Cyclisation." E. L. Ruchkina, A. J. Blake, M. Mascal, Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 8443.

 

29) "The G-C DNA Base Hybrid: Synthesis, Self-Organization and Structural Analysis." M. Mascal, N. M. Hext, R. Warmuth, J. R. Arnall-Culliford, M. H. Moore, J. P. Turkenburg, J. Org. Chem. 1999, 64, 8479.

 

28) "S-Cylindrophanes: From Metal Tweezers to Metal Sandwiches." M. Mascal, J.-L. Kerdelhué, A. J. Blake, P. A. Cooke, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 1968.

 

27) "From Molecular Ribbons to a Molecular Fabric." M. Mascal, J. Hansen, P. S. Fallon, A. J. Blake, B. R. Heywood, M. H. Moore, J. P. Turkenburg, Chem. Eur. J. 1999, 5, 381.

 

26) "The Radical Cation of Azatriquinane: An ESR Study." F. Gerson, P. Merstetter, M. Mascal, N. M. Hext, Helv. Chim. Acta 1998, 81, 1749.

 

25) "sym-[5.5.5]Heterocyclophanes: Structurally Well-Defined, Mixed π/Heteroatom-Donor Macrobi-cyclic Cages." J. Hansen, A. J. Blake, W.-S. Li, M. Mascal, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1998, 3371.

 

24) "Azatriquinanes: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity." N. M. Hext, J. Hansen, A. J. Blake, D. E. Hibbs, M. B. Hursthouse, O. V. Shishkin, M. Mascal, J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 6016.

 

23) "Statistical Analysis of C–H...N Hydrogen Bonds in the Solid State: There Are Real Precedents."

M. Mascal, Chem. Commun. 1998, 303.

 

22) "Design, Synthesis and Metal Binding Properties of a Mixed-donor Macrocycle." M. Mascal, J. Hansen, A. J. Blake, W.-S. Li, Chem. Commun. 1998, 355.

 

21) "Synthesis and Structural Characterization of an S-linked Calix[3]azine." M. Mascal, J. L. Richardson, A. J. Blake, W.-S. Li, Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 7639.

 

20) "A Statistical Analysis of Halide...H-A (A = OR, NR2, N+R3) Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in the Solid State." M. Mascal, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans. 2 1997, 1999.

 

19) "Ab Initio Study of the Molecular Structure and Photoelectron Spectra of Azatriquinane,   Triazatricyclodecane and Tricyclodecane." V. Galasso, D. Jones, M. Mascal, J. Hansen, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 1997, 392, 21.

 

18) "Programming a Hydrogen-Bonding Code for the Specific Generation of a Super-Macrocycle." M. Mascal, N. M. Hext, R. Warmuth, M. H. Moore, J. P. Turkenburg, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1996, 35, 2204.

 

17) "Indole-fused Tetraazacyclooctadecanes: Double-helical Macrocycles." M. Mascal, I. G. Wood, M. J. Begley, A. S. Batsanov, T. Walsgrove, A. M. Z. Slawin, D. J. Williams, A. F. Drake, G. Siligardi, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1996, 2427.

 

16) "Conformational Study of the Higher [n.n]paracyclophanes: Evaluation as Potential Hosts for Molecular Halogens and Benzenes." M. Mascal, J.-L. Kerdelhué, A. S. Batsanov, M. J. Begley, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1996, 1141.

 

15)  "Molecular Structure of the s-Triazine - Br2 Complex." M. Mascal, J. L. Richardson, A. J. Blake, W.-S. Li, Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 3505.

 

14) "Azatriquinane, Azatriquinacene and a Remarkable Dimerization Product." M. Mascal, N. M. Hext, O. V. Shishkin, Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 131.

 

13) "Conformational Restriction of Calixarenes by 'meta' Substitution." M. Mascal, R. T. Naven, R. Warmuth, Tetrahedron Lett. 1995, 36, 9361.

 

12) "The Ion-pair Reinforced, Hydrogen-bonding Molecular Ribbon." M. Mascal, P. S. Fallon, A. S. Batsanov, B. R. Heywood, S. Champ, M. Colclough, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1995, 805.

 

11) "Noncovalent Design Principles and the New Synthesis." M. Mascal, Contemporary Org. Synth. 1994, 1, 31.

 

10) "A Hydrogen-Bonded, Double-Helical Macrocycle." M. Mascal, C. J. Moody, A. I. Morrell, A. M. Z. Slawin, D. J. Williams, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1993, 115, 813.

 

9) "Molecular Ribbons from Molecular Recognition directed Self-assembly of Self-complementary Molecular Components." J.-M. Lehn, M. Mascal, A. DeCian, J. Fischer, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2 1992, 461.

 

8) "Synthesis of (–)-Indolactam V." M. Mascal, C. J Moody, A. M. Z. Slawin, D. J. Williams, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1992, 823.

 

7) "Synthesis of 3,4-Bridged Indoles by Photocyclisation Reactions.  Part 2.  Photocyclisation of Halogenoacetyl Tryptophol Derivatives and α-Chloro Indole-3-ylalkanoate Esters"  A. L. Beck, M. Mascal, C. J. Moody, W. J. Coates, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1992, 813.

 

6) "Synthesis of 3,4-Bridged Indoles by Photocyclisation Reactions.  Part 1.  Photocyclisation of Halogenoacetyl Tryptophan Derivatives." A. L. Beck, M. Mascal, C. J. Moody, A. M. Z. Slawin, D. J. Williams, W. J. Coates, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1 1992, 797.

 

5) "Molecular Recognition Directed Self-assembly of Ordered Supramolecular Strands by Cocrystalization   of Complementary Molecular Components." J.-M. Lehn, M. Mascal, A. DeCian, J. Fischer, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1990, 479.

 

4) "Synthesis of (-)-Indolactam V." M. Mascal, C. J. Moody, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988, 589.

 

3) "Photocyclisation of Haloacetyl Tryptophan Derivatives." M. Mascal, C. J. Moody, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1988, 587.

 

2) "Eudistomins A-Q, β-Carbolines From the Antiviral Caribbean Tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum." K. L. Rinehart, Jr., J. Kobayashi, G. C. Harbour, J. Gilmore, M. Mascal, T. G. Holt, L. S. Shield, F. Lefargue, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 109, 3378.

1) "Bromo-eudistomin D, a Novel Inducer of Calcium Release from Fragmented Sarcoplasmic Reticulum That Causes Contractions of Skinned Muscle Fibers." Y. Nakamura, J. Kobayashi, J. Gilmore, M. Mascal, K. L. Rinehart, Jr., H. Nakamura, Y. Ohizumi, J. Biol. Chem. 1986, 261, 4139.

 

 

 

Patents

 

1) FLUORIDE ION HOSTS AS PEPTIDE LABELING AGENTS FOR IMAGING BY POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
M. Mascal, U.S. Pat. 7,723,322, 2007.

2) EFFICIENT CHEMICAL PROCESS FOR CONVERTING CELLULOSE INTO ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND/OR FUEL ADDITIVES
M. Mascal, U.S. Pat. 7,829,732, 2010.

3) METHODS FOR PREPARING ALKYLFURANS FROM FURFURAL DERIVATIVES
Masuno, M. N.; Dutta, S.; Mascal, M. PCT Int. Appl. 2014, WO 2014151100 A1 20140925.

4) NOVEL SYNTHESIS OF 2,5-DIMETHYLFURAN FROM 5-(CHLOROMETHYL) FURFURAL
Mascal, M.; Dutta, S. PCT Int. Appl. 2015, WO 2015031753.

5) GASOLINE-LIKE FUEL FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS
Mascal, M.; Dutta, S. Gandarias, I. PCT Int. Appl. Pending.

6) SYNTHESIS OF SUCCINIC ACID FROM BIOMASS-DERIVED LEVULINIC ACID
Mascal, M.; Dutta, S.; Wu, L. US Prov. Appl. Pending.

7) CHEMICAL-CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF LEVULINIC ACID TO 3-HYDROXYPRPANOIC ACID
Mascal, M.; Dutta, S.; Wu, L. US Prov. Appl. Pending.

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